Since the Industrial Revolution, the Causes Of Climate Change human activities have contributed
significantly to the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, altering the planet’s climate.
The earth’s climate is also influenced by natural processes such as fluctuations in solar energy and volcanic eruptions
Here are the top 7 causes of climate change;
1. Greenhouse Gases
During the Industrial Revolution, the Causes Of Climate Change human activity led to an increase in the concentrations of all the major greenhouse gases.
The quantities of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the earth’s atmosphere are higher currently
They have ever been in the previous 800,000 years.
The surface temperature has grown as a result of these greenhouse gas emissions and the greenhouse effect.
More than any other human activity, the Causes Of Climate Change is the burning of fossil fuels that alters the climate.
Carbon dioxide: Currently, about 30 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere annually as a result of human activity.
Since pre-industrial times, Causes Of Climate Change atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have grown by more than 40%,
from around 280 parts per million (ppm) in the 18th century to 414 ppm in 2020.
Methane: Due to human activity, Causes Of Climate Change methane concentrations climbed significantly over the majority of the 20th century, from around 722 parts per billion (ppb) in the 18th century to 1,867 ppb in 2019.
Nitrous oxide: Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, nitrous oxide concentrations have increased by around 20%, with very significant growth at the end of the 20th century.
In 2019, nitrous oxide concentrations were 332 ppb, up from a pre-industrial level of 270 ppb.
2. Human activities
The climatic effects of human activities have come to light as a result of the recognition of global climate change as an environmental concern. Causes Of Climate Change
The majority of the attention has been on deforestation and fossil fuel burning as major sources of carbon dioxide emissions.
Other greenhouse gases, such as methane (from rice agriculture, cattle, landfills, and other sources),
and chlorofluorocarbons are also Causes Of Climate Change released as a result of human activity (from industrial sources).
There is no question among climatologists that these greenhouse gases have an impact on the Earth’s radiation budget;
nevertheless, the kind and scope of the climatic response are actively being researched.
The whole 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century are clearly marked by a warming trend,
according to paleoclimate data from tree rings, coral, and ice cores.
In actuality, the 20th century was the hottest of the previous ten, and the decade 2001–2010 was the warmest since the advent of contemporary instrumental record keeping.
Numerous climatologists have cited this rising trend as unequivocal proof of human-caused climate change brought on by the emission of greenhouse gases.
3. Higher Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Black Carbon
Crop yields can be impacted by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in both positive and negative ways.
According to certain lab tests, increased CO2 levels may promote plant growth.
However, other elements, including ozone, water, nutrient shortages, and temperature changes, may more than offset any possible gain in production.
If certain crops’ ideal temperature ranges are exceeded, prior potential production increases may be mitigated or even undone.
Despite the fact that black carbon (BC) is a solid particle or aerosol and not a gas, it nonetheless warms the atmosphere.
Unlike GHGs, BC may directly absorb infrared radiation as well as incoming and reflected sunlight.
Additionally, BC can be put on snow and ice, darkening the surface to increase the snow’s ability to absorb sunlight and hasten it to melt.
4. Orbital (Milankovich) variations
The gravitational pull of other planets in the solar system has predictable effects on Earth’s orbital geometry.
Each of the three key aspects of the Earth’s orbit is impacted in a cyclic, or recurrent, way.
First, with periodicities between 100,000 and 413,000 years, the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun ranges from almost circular to elliptical (eccentric).
Second, Earth’s axis tilts away from the plane of its revolution around the Sun by 22.1° to 24.5°. This tilt is mostly to blame for the planet’s seasonal climates.
The cycle over which this variation occurs is 41,000 years.
In general, hemispheres receive more solar energy in the summer and less in the winter the more tilt there is.
The Earth’s axis of rotation wobbles, shifting its direction with regard to the Sun, while the orientation of the Earth’s orbital ellipse progressively rotates.
Together, these two events provide the third cyclic alteration to the Earth’s orbital geometry.
The positions of Earth during the equinoxes and solstices vary throughout a 26,000-year cycle caused by these two processes, known as the precession of the equinoxes.
When compared to 9,000 years ago, when Earth was closest to the Sun, perihelion occurs today at the December solstice.
5. Reflectivity or Absorption of the Sun’s Energy
Sunlight can be deflected or absorbed when it reaches Earth.
The surface and atmosphere of Earth determine how much light is reflected or absorbed.
Darker items and surfaces, such as the ocean, woods, or dirt, tend to absorb more sunlight
whereas lighter objects and surfaces, such as snow and clouds, tend to reflect the majority of sunlight.
The quantity of solar radiation reflected from a surface or an object is known as albedo, and it is frequently given as a percentage.
70 percent of the sunlight that reaches the globe is absorbed due to Earth’s average albedo of 30 percent.
The surface of the Earth, its oceans, and its atmosphere are all warmed by sunlight that has been absorbed.
Aerosols have an impact on reflectivity as well.
They are microscopic solid or liquid droplets in the air that have the ability to reflect or absorb sunlight.
unlike greenhouse gases, Causes Of Climate Change which have different climate impacts depending on their composition and location of emission.
Particles from volcanic eruptions or sulfur emissions from burning coal are examples of aerosols that reflect sunlight and have a cooling impact.
Black carbon, a component of soot, is one of those that absorb sunlight and has a warming impact.
Absorption of the Sun’s Energy
A change in the earth’s surface’s reflectance can result from activities like farming, building roads, and deforestation, which can cause localized warming or cooling.
Heat islands—urban regions that are warmer than the nearby, Causes Of Climate Change in less populous areas—are where this impact is seen.
Buildings, pavement, and roofs have a tendency to reflect less sunlight than natural surfaces, which contributes to the warmth of these locations.
The total result of all land-use changes appears Causes Of Climate Change to be a slight cooling,
despite the fact that deforestation can improve the earth’s reflectivity worldwide by replacing dark forests with brighter surfaces like crops.
The sun’s energy may be reflected or absorbed as a result of microscopic particles known as aerosols being released into the atmosphere.
Aerosols are produced in the atmosphere as a result of several chemical reactions involving air contaminants.
Overall, the globe is cooled by aerosols produced by humans. Find out more about synthetic and natural aerosols
6. Solar variability
Since the Sun’s creation, its luminosity, or brightness, Causes Of Climate Change have been constantly rising.
Because the Sun supplies the energy to power air circulation and serves as the input for the Earth’s heat budget,
this phenomenon is significant to the temperature of the planet.
The paradox of the weak young sun, discussed in the article Climate Change Throughout History,
is due to the low solar irradiance during the Precambrian.
Due to solar storms and other disturbances, the Sun’s radiation fluctuates over extremely short periods,
but fluctuations in solar activity, particularly Causes Of Climate Change the frequency of sunspots,
have also been observed over decadal to millennial periods and probably occur over longer periods.
It has been suggested that the “Maunder Minimum,” a period of significantly
lower sunspot activity between AD 1645 and 1715, may have contributed to the Little Ice Age.
7. Volcanic activity
On different time scales, volcanic activity can have a variety of climate-altering effects.
Sulfur dioxide and other aerosols can be released in large quantities during individual volcanic eruptions, reducing the transparency of the atmosphere
thus the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface and troposphere.
A recent example is Mount Pinatubo’s eruption in the Philippines in 1991,
which had detectable effects on the circulation and heat budgets of the atmosphere.
The Mount Tambora eruption on the island of Sumbawa in 1815 had more dramatic effects because the next year
(1816, dubbed “the year without a summer”)
saw exceptionally chilly spring and summer temperatures over much of the globe.
Throughout the summer of 1816, snowfalls and frosts occurred in New England and Europe.
Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and oceans by volcanoes and other related processes,
such as ocean breakup and subduction.
The amount of emissions is small; even a large volcanic eruption
such as Mount Pinatubo emits only a small fraction of the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels in a given year.
However, the emission of this greenhouse gas can have significant consequences across geologic timeframes.
The chemistry of the atmosphere can change as a result of variations in the carbon dioxide released by volcanoes and ocean rifts over millions of years.
Most of the climate fluctuations that occur during the Phanerozoic can probably be explained by this variability in carbon dioxide concentration